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Lumbee Indian Resources in the Southern Historical Collection (SHC)

Louis Round Wilson Special Collections Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

I. Digitized Collections

Digitized content from the following SHC collections is available online. Links are to the collection’s finding aid (a descriptive guide to the collection with a contents listing). To locate the digitized content in the collection, examine and search the finding aid for relevant references. Digitized content is indicated by hyperlinks in the contents list.

A. Paul Green Papers (3693)

Paul Eliot Green (1894-1981) of Chapel Hill, N.C., was an author, Pulitzer Prize winning playwright, and humanitarian. This collection contains material documenting many facets of Green’s life and work, material relating to the life and work of his wife, Elizabeth Lay Green, and numerous items relating to members of the Greens’ immediate and extended family. Paul Green’s work as a dramatist and writer is documented in his professional correspondence files (circa 34,400 items); by extensive files on his symphonic dramas, including background material, drafts, musical scores, and business records; and by drafts of poems, essays, and novels by Green.

See:

Folder 4598: Lumbee Indian Project: 1971
Folder 4599: Lumbee Indian Project: 1973
Folder 4600: Correspondence, clippings
Folder 4601: Drafts of script by R. Umberger
Folder 4602: Strike at the Wind by R. Umberger 2nd Draft
Folder 4603: Strike at the Wind: A Play for the Robeson Historical Association

B. Guy Benton Johnson Papers (3826)

Guy Benton Johnson was one of the original research assistants at the Institute for Research in Social Science and joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina in 1927, retiring in 1969. The collection consists of papers, mostly correspondence and research project files, relating chiefly to Johnson’s work at the University of Chicago and at UNC on the Ku Klux Klan; musical abilities of African-Americans and white Americans; African-American folksongs; the John Henry legend; the folklore and language (Gullah) of Saint Helena Island, S.C.; Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, N.C.; and the desegregation of higher education.

See:

Folder 507: R: Miscellaneous
Folder 1199: Addresses by Johnson on Lumbee Indians
Folder 1200: Article by Johnson on Lumbee Indians
Folder 1201: Background Research Notes on Indians of Robeson County
Folder 1202: Background Research Notes on Indians of Robeson County
Folder 1203: Bibliography on Lumbee and Other American Indians
Folder 1204: Carnegie Research Fund Grant
Folder 1205: Census and Background Data on Indians of Robeson County
Folder 1207: Cherokee Indian Normal School Catalogue, 1935-1936
Folder 1214: Correspondence, 1935-1943, 1945, 1947-1962, 1968-1971 and undated
Folder 1215: Correspondence, 1935-1943, 1945, 1947-1962, 1968-1971 and undated
Folder 1216: Correspondence, 1935-1943, 1945, 1947-1962, 1968-1971 and undated
Folder 1217: Correspondence, 1935-1943, 1945, 1947-1962, 1968-1971 and undated
Folder 1218: Crime in Robeson County
Folder 1219: Crusoe Island
Folder 1220: Farm Family Schedules for Robeson County
Folder 1221: Farm Family Schedules for Robeson County
Folder 1222: Farm Family Schedules for Robeson County
Folder 1223: Field Notes on Indians of Robeson County
Folder 1224: Field Notes on Indians of Robeson County
Folder 1225: Field Notes on Indians of Robeson County
Folder 1226: Field Notes on Indians of Robeson County, 1938, 1949, and undated
Folder 1227: Field Notes on Indians of Robeson County, 1938, 1949, and undated
Folder 1228: Indian Child Welfare Association (Pembroke, N.C.)
Folder 1229: Indians of the South by Floyd Cox
Folder 1230: An Institutional Sketch of the Robeson County Indian Community, by Benton Johnson
Folder 1231: Interviews with Robeson County Indians, 1948-1949
Folder 1232: Interviews with Robeson County Indians (Handwritten Notes)
Folder 1233: Lost Colony
Folder 1234: Maps of Robeson County
Folder 1235: Migration Schedules (Robeson County)
Folder 1236: Migration Schedules (Robeson County)
Folder 1237: Miscellaneous
Folder 1238: North American Indians, Population Distribution
Folder 1239: Notebook on Study of Indians of Robeson County
Folder 1240: Notebook Enclosures
Folder 1241: Pembroke State College for Indians
Folder 1244: Research Methods for Study of Indians of Robeson County
Folder 1245: A Survey of the Churches of Robeson County, 1948-1949

C. North Carolina Fund Records (4710)

The North Carolina Fund, an independent, non-profit, charitable corporation, sought and dispensed funds to fight poverty in North Carolina, 1963-1968. Governor Terry Sanford and other North Carolinians convinced the Ford Foundation to grant $7 million initial funding for a statewide anti- poverty effort aimed at rural and urban communities. This money–plus additional funding from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation; the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation; the U.S. Dept. of Labor; U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare; U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development; and the Office of Economic Opportunity–enabled the Fund to support a broad program of education, community action, manpower development, research and planning, and other efforts to fight poverty. Administrative and financial records (about 32,000 items), including policy statements; Board of Directors minutes and other records; correspondence, speeches, and other files of Executive Director George Hyndman Esser (1921- ) and other staff members; records of meetings and conferences; proposals and grants; materials documenting the Fund’s relationship with the Ford Foundation, the Office of Economic Opportunity, the Foundation for Community Development, the Low-Income Housing Development Corporation, and other organizations; subject files; clippings, audit reports; and financial correspondence and other financial records.

See:

Folder 4603: Community Background Information Richmond, Robeson, Scotland: Funds Received from Federal Agencies: 30 June 1966
Folder 4604: Community Background Information Demographic Data
Folder 4605: Community Background Information Data: Richmond, Robeson, and Scotland Counties
Folder 4609: Community Background Information Population and Economy: Lumberton, N.C.
Folder 4610: Community Background Information Population and Ecology: Robeson County
Folder 4611: Community Background Information Annual Public Health Reports: Robeson, Scotland, Richmond
Folder 4626: Reports: Lumbee Citizens Council Report
Folder 4674: Community Support Organization in Robeson, Hoke, and Scotland Counties
Folder 4686: Robeson County Mental Health Assoc. Proposal for Interrupting the Cycle of Poverty, December 1963
Folder 4690: Summer Tutorial and Recreation Program for the Rural Communities of Robeson County
Folder 5574: Tri-County Pembroke, Robeson County Employment Needs
Folder 5575: Tri-County Rowland, Robeson County Employment Needs
Folder 5576: Tri-County St. Paul, Robeson County Employment Needs
Folder 5577: Tri-County Fairmont, Robeson County Employment Needs
Folder 5578: Tri-County Red Springs, Robeson County Employment Needs
Folder 5579: Tri-County Maxton, Robeson County Employment Needs
Folder 5580: Tri-County Townships within Robeson County
Folder 5813: Urban Unit MITCE and Lumbee Indians
Folder 5814: Urban Unit Greensboro MITCE Project Urbanization of Lumbee Indians
Folder 5878: County Referrals Robeson County, March 1966
Folder 5879: County Referrals Robeson County, March 1966
Folder 5880: County Referrals Robeson County, March 1966
Folder 5881: County Referrals Robeson County, March 1966
Folder 5882: County Referrals Richmond-Robeson-Scotland Counties, June 1966
Folder 5883: County Referrals Richmond-Robeson-Scotland Counties, June 1966
Folder 6183: Tri-County OJT Lumberton Metal
Folder 6184: Tri-County OJT Lumberton Motors Inc.

D. Wishart Family Papers (4624)

Wishart family members include Francis Marion Wishart (1837-1872) of Shoe Heel (now Maxton), near Lumberton in Robeson County, N.C., who served in the Confederage army during the Civil War and organized the fight against the Lowry gang, a group of Croatan (Lumbee) Indians that terrorized Robeson County around 1871.

See:

Folder 3: Correspondence
Folder 4: Notes and writings
Folder 5: Notes and writings
Special Format Image 1: Tintype showing three men (tentatively identified by the donor as Wishart family members) with shotguns and a dead Lowry gang member, circa 1871. Photographic copy filed with the tintype.
Image 1: Photograph of Francis Marion Wishart, circa 1871. Negative available.

E. Odum Family Papers

Odum family of Robeson County, N.C., included Malcolm E. Odum (1884-1954), who raised tobacco, cotton, and corn as cash crops, and his daughters, who rented out shares to tenants after their father’s death. The family sold their farm in 1986. Correspondence, financial and legal items, notes, and other material relating to the fifty-acre farm of the Odum family. Records are arranged by fiscal year; this arrangement scheme was established by Estelle Odum Bullock, who managed the farm accounts from 1955 through 1982. Annual statements provide detailed documentation of the farm’s income and expenses for the year. Check register volumes include detailed descriptive information indicating why each check was written. Other noteworthy items include a drawing of the farm and scattered correspondence and debentures reflecting the Odums’ stock in the Farmers Cooperative Exchange, Inc., Raleigh, N.C.

See:

Folder 1: 1955
Folder 2: 1956
Folder 3: 1957
Folder 4: 1959
Folder 5: 1960
Folder 6: 1965
Folder 7: 1966
Folder 8: 1967
Folder 9: 1968
Folder 10: 1969
Folder 11: 1970
Folder 12: 1971
Folder 13: 1972
Folder 14: 1973
Folder 15: 1974
Folder 16: 1975
Folder 17: 1976
Folder 18: 1977
Folder 19: January 1955-November 1957
Folder 20: June 1967-October 1967
Folder 21: October 1967-October 1969
Folder 22: October 1969-November 1971
 

II. Other Collections

The following archival collections in the SHC have content pertaining to Lumbee Indian history and culture. Links are to the collection’s finding aid (a descriptive guide to the collection with a contents listing). To locate the content in the collection, examine and search the finding aid for relevant references.

A. Southern Justice Institute Records (4704)

The Southern Justice Institute, a public interest law firm, originally the southern division of the Christic Institute of Washington, D.C. It opened in 1985 as the Christic Institute South under director Lewis Pitts in Winston-Salem, N.C., relocating to Carrboro, N.C., a year later, and to Durham, N.C., in 1991. Formed to provide legal aid and organizing assistance to racial and other minorities in the South seeking political empowerment, the Institute incorporated as the independent Southern Justice Institute in 1992 and operated until 1994, handling, in its last two years of operation, mostly child advocacy cases. Many items pertain to the defense of Eddie Hatcher, a Lumbee Indian, and Timothy Jacobs, a Tuscarora Indian, charged with kidnapping while trying to bring attention to corruption in Robeson County, N.C.

See:

Boxes 2–18b:  Robeson County, N.C., Hostage-Taking Case, circa 1988-1990

B. Guion Griffis Johnson (4546)

Guion Griffis Johnson of Chapel Hill, N.C., was a professor, author, scholar, journalist, women’s advocate, and general civic leader. Johnson held a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of North Carolina. She published three books: A Social History of the Sea Islands (1930), Antebellum North Carolina (1937), and Volunteers in Community Service (1967). Her husband was Guy Johnson, professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the 1920s and 1930s, Johnson and her husband worked together at the Institute for Research in Social Science at University of North Carolina. Correspondence, writings, subject files, and other materials relating to Johnson’s professional and family life. Topics of primary interest include civil rights, race relations, volunteerism, women’s equality, education, school desegregation, poverty, international cooperation, and general public welfare.

Alicia Blue (later Wise) began writing to Johnson in 1949 when Johnson started teaching and performing research in Pembroke, N.C., among the Lumbee Indians. Alicia Blue was a teenager and wrote about local happenings in her family and in the Lumbee community. These letters are sporadic, but continue throughout the 1950s.

See:

Folders 36–95:  1949–1959

C. John Harden Papers (4702)

John William Harden (1903-1985) of Greensboro, N.C., was a journalist, newspaper editor, author, advisor to North Carolina governors and textile executives, and founder of the state’s first full-service public relations company. The collection contains materials, 1914-1986, including business records, correspondence, writings, speeches and speech materials, administrative records, newspaper clippings, diaries, scrapbooks, photograph albums, family papers, sound recordings, and videocassettes relating to John Harden.

See:

Image Folder P-4702/32-33: Photographs of Jack Ivey, a Lumbee Indian, at work and with his family. These photographs were taken by Pete Range for the North Carolina Fund.

III. Southern Oral History Program Collection (4007)

Online Database

U.2.  School Desegregation in Robeson County, N.C.

Interviews focusing on the process and challenges of tri-racial school desegregation in Robeson County, N.C. Interviewees discuss the internal political dynamics of the Lumbee and Tuscarora Indians of Robeson County, as well as black and white, white and Indian, and black and Indian race relations. While these interviews focus broadly on school desegregation, they also range over multiple facets of the civil rights movement in Robeson County, 1954-1988. The mechanics of segregation and desegregation, interviewees’ experiences in a tri-racial community, and present-day attitudes are discussed.

Links are to the database records, which include the transcriptions of the interviews

Interview U-0001:  Allen, Young H. (*), 16 February 2004

Interview U-0002: Brooks, Martin L. (*), 23 April 2004

Interview U-0003: Dial, James (*), 4 February 2004

Interview U-0004: Hunt, Cecil and Elisha Locklear, 23 February 2004

Interview U-0005: Jones, James Arthur, 19 November 2003

Interview U-0006 : Legerton, Mac (*), 5 May 2004

Interview U-0007 : Locklear, Carnell, 24 February 2004

Interview U-0008 : Mangum, Robert Lee, 18 November 2003

Interview U-0009: Moore, Luther Harbert (*), 16 October 2003

No online files

Interview U-0010: Moore, Luther Harbert (*), 20 November 2003

No online files

Interview U-0011: Moore, James, 16 October 2003

Interview U-0012: Nakell, Barry, 1 October 2003

Interview U-0013: Oxendine, Henry Ward (*), 23 September 2003

Interview U-0014: Robinson, Willa V., 14 January 2004

Interview U-0015: Sider, Gerald and Bruce Jones (*), 22 January 2004.

CLOSED until 22 January 2014

Interview U-0016: Swett, Purnell (*), 19 February 2004

Interview U-0017: Thompson, Angus, Sr., 21 October 2003

Other Interviews

Interview A-0371: Blue, Daniel Terry, 19 January 1996

No online files

Interview B-0005-3:  Green, Paul Eliot, 30 May 1975

Interview B-0006: Johnson, Guy Benton, 16 December 1974

Interview G-0175 : Slifkin, Miriam, 24 March 1995

Interview J-0002: Blue, Daniel Terry, 27 March 1994, 30 March 1994

No online files

Interview J-0007: Nakell, Barry, 16 February 1993, 23 February 1993, 30 March 1993

No online files

Interview J-0011: Brooks, Dexter, 14 March 1994, 21 March 1994

No online files

Interview L-0078: Woods, Ruth Dial, 12 June 1992

Interview L-0251: Tindall, George, 7 January 2005

Interview O-0038: Barnes, Billy E., 7 October 2003

Interview O-0038: Barnes, Billy E., 6 November 2003

3 Responses to “Southern Historical Collection: Lumbee Indian Resources”

  1. Billie Annette Bell

    I am trying to get in contact with Descendants as well as Ancesters of Carl Walter Bell(1936 graduate) and Inez Hunt (1939,1940 Graduate) whome married and had the following children;Carl Walter Bell Jr.,Craven Bell and Freida Bell. Sisters of Inez were Sil Hunt whome married Jerry Simpson and Evelyn C Hunt whome married Verlin Locklear. I dont know of any other syblings at this point and dont know of any syblings for Carl Walter Bell Snr. Although, he may have had some. Please can anyone help? I was told that both Carl and Evelyn were both Teachers.

  2. mmaynor

    You might try getting in contact with Judge Greg Bell in Pembroke, NC, or Dr. Joseph Bell, also of Pembroke. judge Greg is on Facebook and Dr. Joey is in the phone book.

  3. steavwawilliam

    Took me time to read all the comments, but I really enjoyed the article. It proved to be Very helpful to me and I am sure to all the commenters here!

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